6. Password Best Practice: Salt
Of the information currently available about the LinkedIn security breach, one notable fact is that the business didn't salt its passwords. "Salting password hashes has been good practice for 20 years or more. LinkedIn wasn't salting its password hashes. As a result, in my opinion, LinkedIn failed to meet minimal standards that users would expect them to follow to secure their information," said Graham Cluley, senior technology consultant at Sophos, via email.
"Of course, that doesn't mean that LinkedIn are the only ones who are failing to reach such a minimal standard. My expectation is that there are many other websites are out there making similar mistakes--but we just don't know about them," said Cluley. Notably, two password breaches that came to light the same week as the LinkedIn breach, involving eHarmony and Last.fm, likewise revealed that neither site had salted its passwords.
7. Security: Where To Find Standards
Failing to salt passwords suggests a more widespread lack of effective security practices, and there are a number of not just standard practices, but actual standards that all businesses should be pursuing. "In particular, the OWASP top 10 are commonly seen as industry standard, and referred to in other standards like PCI," said Johannes Ullrich, chief research officer at SANS Institute, via email. For example, here's what the OWASP top 10 section on "insecure cryptographic storage" has to say about passwords: "Ensure passwords are hashed with a strong standard algorithm and an appropriate salt is used."
Ullrich also pointed to the common weakness enumeration (CWE) system, which is billed as a "community-developed dictionary of software weakness types," and which specifically calls out the use of a one-way hash without a salt as one of the top 25 most dangerous software errors.
8. Security Involves More Than Hashing
When it comes to LinkedIn, however, take the related password discussion with, yes, a grain of salt. "No salting is indeed a bad practice, but I think the whole hashing and salting discussion is missing the main point," said Imperva's Be'ery. "It's very natural to focus on it, as the only thing we know for a fact is that 6.5 million of LinkedIn's hashed passwords were leaked. It's like having a bank robbery that was discovered by finding the bills in circulation, and [having] the press discussing whether and how the bills should be marked, while the real question is: How was the bank robbed in the first place?"
Or as F-Secure's Sullivan said, when it comes to LinkedIn, "I'd be curious to know how the internal production systems were secured."
9. LinkedIn: Security Facts Still Outstanding
In other words, a few password facts aside, very big questions about LinkedIn's security practices have yet to be publicly detailed. "Hashing and salting, much like bill marking, is a secondary measure of protection," Be'ery said. "The main protection is supposed to keep the bad guys away from the data or the money."
"So the real question here is, how the data was breached," he said. "Did LinkedIn use 'industry standard protocols and technology' with respect to breach protection? Did they pen test their app? Did they use a Web application firewall? Did the hackers use some super new '0 day' attack, or did they use some very common Web application attacks such as SQL injection or remote file inclusion?"
Until those questions get answered, expect discussions of LinkedIn's security to remain largely academic.
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