Kimball University: The 10 Essential Rules of Dimensional Modeling
(Page 3 of 3)
Rule #8: Make certain that dimension tables use a surrogate key.
Meaningless, sequentially assigned surrogate keys (except for the date dimension, where chronologically assigned and even more meaningful keys are acceptable) deliver a number of operational benefits, including smaller keys which mean smaller fact tables, smaller indexes, and improved performance. Surrogate keys are absolutely required if you're tracking dimension attribute changes with a new dimension record for each profile change. Even if your business users don't initially visualize the value of tracking attribute changes, using surrogates will make a downstream policy change less onerous. The surrogates also allow you to map multiple operational keys to a common profile, plus buffer you from unexpected operational activities, like the recycling of an obsolete product number or acquisition of another company with its own coding schemes.
Rule #9: Create conformed dimensions to integrate data across the enterprise.
Conformed dimensions (otherwise known as common, master, standard or reference dimensions) are essential for enterprise data warehousing. Managed once in the ETL system and then reused across multiple fact tables, conformed dimensions deliver consistent descriptive attributes across dimensional models and support the ability to drill across and integrate data from multiple business processes. The Enterprise Data Warehouse Bus Matrix is the key architecture blueprint for representing the organization's core business processes and associated dimensionality. Reusing conformed dimensions ultimately shortens the time-to-market by eliminating redundant design and development efforts; however, conformed dimensions require a commitment and investment in data stewardship and governance, even if you don't need everyone to agree on every dimension attribute to leverage conformity.
Rule #10: Continuously balance requirements and realities to deliver a DW/BI solution that's accepted by business users and that supports their decision-making.
Dimensional modelers must constantly straddle business user requirements along with the underlying realities of the associated source data to deliver a design that can be implemented and that, more importantly, stands a reasonable chance of business adoption. The requirements-versus-realities balancing act is a fact of life for DW/BI practitioners, whether you're focused on the dimensional model, project strategy, technical/ETL/BI architectures or deployment/maintenance plan.
If you've read our Intelligent Enterprise articles, Toolkit books or monthly Design Tips regularly, these rules shouldn't be news to you, but here we've consolidated our rules into a single rulebook that you can refer to when you are gathered to design or review your models.