3D Printing Breakthrough Could Change Healthcare - InformationWeek

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11/2/2015
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3D Printing Breakthrough Could Change Healthcare

Researchers at Carnegie Mellon have used a new technique to print soft tissue an off-the-shelf 3D printer, and hope to use the method to make hearts.

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A new 3D printing technique developed at Carnegie Mellon will allow the printing of soft living tissue like that of our own organs. The most amazing part is that Carnegie Mellon has done this with off-the-shelf 3D printers that cost about $1,000.

Up until now, 3D printing was mostly done using rigid materials like plastics, resins, and metal. Until this process, 3D printing of soft tissue required special artificial frameworks or lattices to hold together the organs. Otherwise, if you try to print softer materials in air, they cannot support their own weight as you add layers of material. If an organ can’t hold its shape while you add to it, it is useless. However, the frames had a potential for increasing rejection rates. They made the whole process more complicated and expensive.

The technique developed by Carnegie Mellon researchers uses a gel to support the organ as it is being built. The printer injects the new materials inside the gel, and once the organ is complete and can support itself, the outer gel can be melted away in warm water, leaving behind the perfectly formed organ. Here's what it looks like:

Previous bioprinters have cost more than $100,000 and have required specialists to run the machines. Reducing the costs of the machines reduces the cost of the organs themselves, which are mostly made from collagen, alginates, and fibrins. These are relatively common materials. Doctors already inject collagen into body parts for cosmetic reasons.

Of course, to make a functioning heart or other organ takes more than collagen. Some researchers are working now on injecting living heart cells into the mix in order to make a viable heart. Other researchers have succeeded at making living 3D printed organs, so there is hope that the processes can be married into a relatively cheap method of producing what amounts to human replacement parts.

This sounds cool, but such a process is also desperately needed. According to the Carnegie Mellon researchers, some 4,000 Americans are currently awaiting heart transplants. Further, according to the US Department of Health and Human Services, 22 people die every day in America waiting for a vital organ transplant. Further, 28,000 people every year receive a major organ transplant, and another 1 million receive cornea, bone, skin, and other types of tissue donations. Demand always outstrips supply.

Interestingly enough, the ability to create affordable spare organs opens a market for greater demand. Today, only the sickest of patients are eligible for transplant lists, while others who are ill must make do with daily drugs, therapy, and stop-gap measures. If replacing organs became as easy as replacing the muffler on your car, we could potentially improve the quality of life and save money treating countless diseases.

[Of course, 3D printing goes beyond the micro to the macro. Read: 3D Printing Robot Will Build An Entire Bridge.]

We're not there yet, but this process is a major step toward solving the shortage of replacement organs. It may even have other uses, such as the 3D-printing of food and soft consumer goods, meaning it might be possible to 3D-print more goods in our own houses. The technique has a lot of potential to change the way we think of healthcare, and even the way we shop, eat, and live.

David has been writing on business and technology for over 10 years and was most recently Managing Editor at Enterpriseefficiency.com. Before that he was an Assistant Editor at MIT Sloan Management Review, where he covered a wide range of business topics including IT, ... View Full Bio

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David Wagner
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David Wagner,
User Rank: Strategist
11/30/2015 | 10:53:12 PM
Re: The future is amazing
@michelle- I suppose the best part of tht is that you can easily print another one.
Michelle
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Michelle,
User Rank: Ninja
11/30/2015 | 10:03:17 PM
Re: The future is amazing
@David that's quite a thought -- reprinting organs. I wonder what would happen if an organ didn't quite work and the patient needs another. Interesting and scary.
LonnieS443
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LonnieS443,
User Rank: Apprentice
11/6/2015 | 5:19:02 PM
Re: The future is amazing
The interesting thing is the idea that different types of cells can be added like cartridges of color so that structural and supportive tissues such as epithelial, collagen, fibroid can be built along with an organ.  Perhaps printing vascualarized and ennervated organs including lungs, liver pancreas.  I would love to see the proof of concept for the next phase of this.  It is sucn an improvement over cloning which would require the developmental and growth period of the targeted organ.
danielcawrey
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danielcawrey,
User Rank: Ninja
11/2/2015 | 10:04:26 PM
Re: The future is amazing
This is a very cool application for 3D printing technology. It is probably going to save tons of lives in the future. Most of us have had friends of familiy members with organ issues that a transplant could fix. Problem is, a myriad of factors limit many people from getting transplants due to organ scarcity. 

Soon, that may no longer be a problem thanks to 3D printing of body organs. 
David Wagner
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David Wagner,
User Rank: Strategist
11/2/2015 | 1:56:34 PM
Re: The future is amazing
@michelle- I think that would be the ultimate plan. Eventually, I suspect we'd be trying to personalize this to a person's chemical makeup and basically we'd be "reprinting" their organs. I suspect the first step however is to simply make the organs viable and functional. 
Michelle
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Michelle,
User Rank: Ninja
11/2/2015 | 1:51:34 PM
The future is amazing
This is so amazing! I wonder if the new technique would help lessen tissue rejection problems seen with person to person transplants.
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