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4/27/2012
09:25 AM
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After Flashback, Apple Walled Gardens Won't Help

Apple and other vendors will use the Flashback botnet as reason to move forward with desktop walled garden restrictions. Here's why that approach won't cut malware.

Apple's OS/X operating system has long been the "safer" approach to desktop computing. While fuzzy math has been applied to imply that Windows is less secure only because its larger market share makes it a bigger target, architectural considerations have long made OS/X and Unix/Linux less vulnerable to attack.

But as every security-savvy IT pro knows, "safer" isn't "totally safe." So it's not surprising that anti-virus vendors are starting to coddle us with "total security" for the Mac. And as Apple moves forward with App Store plans for the Mac, it won't be surprising to see Apple cite Flashback malware as a reason for exerting strong-arm control over Mac apps.

As we all know, security typically comes with a tradeoff. You're giving up something, whether it's convenience or money. Neither of the approaches cited above will eliminate risk, so the question is, are their tradeoffs worth the gains?

Virus protection is debatable, but in the case of walled garden, I say "No" for three reasons: It won't make us safer, it takes away our organizations' options, and it will cost us more. These are the same reasons you don't wear a bulletproof vest if you aren't in law enforcement or a war zone: For the most part, it won't make you safer, it takes away some wardrobe options, and it will cost you more.

Mac users don't live in a war zone and, eventually, Windows users won't either, because of improvements in architecture that emulate Linux and Mac.

Flashback is clearly the biggest Mac botnet of all time, having infected somewhere in the neighborhood of 500,000 desktops. That's several orders of magnitude less than comparable PC botnets, such as Conficker, estimated to have infected about 12 million PCs. PC virus infections also dwarf Mac ones.

Why? The popular answer is "market share." That's nonsense. It's all about computing paradigm. Windows programs ran for so long as administrator-by-default that writing viruses for them was extremely easy. OS/X and Linux have always used a paradigm whereby their programs did NOT provide administrative access by default. Exceptions were made only through explicit authorization.

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Zero day hacks that take advantage of browser bugs exist in all operating systems, but that "default administrator" is a major, major problem. Current versions of Windows have something called User Account Control that finally does what Linux and OS/X have been doing all along, but the caveat is that some enterprise administrators, to support poorly written Windows programs, have had to turn off UAC.

Point is, as the Mac increases in market share, it will indeed be the subject of more attacks, but the basic architecture is the right one. Windows is there in theory, but until app developers catch up, the "everyone's an admin" problem will remain.

Better browser and OS design are what's needed to protect against zero-day attacks, NOT more endpoint protection that slows down your machine and doesn't work anyway--or at least, not when it really matters. AV vendors don't and can't react quickly enough to the latest exploits, and that sandbox stuff that they do ought to be in the OS and browser.

There's never going to be 100% security. And the big deal nowadays is really about computer user gullibility and a lack of corporate security awareness programs. Fake anti-virus anyone? I don't care if you have UAC turned on--if you agree to install fake AV and type in your password to allow it to do system-level stuff to your machine, you're in deep guacamole no matter what platform you're on, OS/X, Windows, or Linux.

And whether you hope to foil intruders via browser or OS design or a lockdown of the OS with the introduction of a walled garden and trusted apps, writing bug-free code is just about impossible. (Note that Chrome's sandbox protection keeps showing that it's difficult, but not impossible, for intruders to exploit bugs and gain the type of access required for malware.)

So when Apple and other manufacturers ask us to accept a walled garden on our desktop computers, know that it won't make us safer.

As far as taking away our options, I've known organizations that simply could not write iOS apps because their legal departments wouldn't agree to Apple's terms and conditions. The notion of having to jailbreak a computer that your company buys in order to write custom apps is simply ludicrous. Think Microsoft won't go there? Fat chance. If Apple leads, and makes money doing it, Microsoft will follow.

One way that scenario will cost us more is the inability to repurpose our desktop computers using other lightweight operating systems as business needs change (for example, using a thin client OS once a desktop can't meet modern requirements). If the walled garden takes hold on Microsoft's and Apple's platforms, we can expect "trusted boot" environments that won't let us repurpose old hardware. We'll have to buy new.

We now take for granted our ability to do what we want with the hardware we buy. I worry that the walled garden paradigm will take away our control over hardware and operating systems and put it in the hands of a third party. We need to let desktop computer makers and their sales reps know that if there's a walled garden in our future, there must be a door to that garden that we control, not them.

Jonathan Feldman is a contributing editor for InformationWeek and director of IT services for a rapidly growing city in North Carolina. Write to him at jf@feldman.org or at @_jfeldman.

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Sam Iam
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Sam Iam,
User Rank: Apprentice
5/8/2012 | 5:54:38 AM
re: After Flashback, Apple Walled Gardens Won't Help
"As far as taking away our options, I've known organizations that simply could not write iOS apps because their legal departments wouldn't agree to Apple's terms and conditions."

What were the circumstances? There shouldn't be any reason, that I can think of, why a company could not develop any iOS app they wanted to develop for their own internal use. If a legal department is shutting down all iOS development, I would have the CIO take it to the GC and ask them why hundreds of other companies have approved the terms and conditions but they cannot be approved at this company. If the company in question is a software developer writing commercial applications, then there may be some sort of unique circumstance.
ANON1237925156805
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ANON1237925156805,
User Rank: Apprentice
4/27/2012 | 9:51:03 PM
re: After Flashback, Apple Walled Gardens Won't Help
Very good writeup; a necessary antidote to the ridiculous IW column the other day that seemed to claim that the flashback incident "proved" that Apple is no more secure than Windows now that it's gaining marketshare.

I too would like to hear more about WHY the walled garden a) won't work and b) will be inconvenient and expensive. The last sentence states that there should be an exit door. Why can a walled garden not be designed in such a way that it's optional not just to those who want to jailbreak but for anyone who knows enough to realize that they are inconvenienced by it?

A follow up would be lovely. Mr. Feldman's explanations are clear and concise.
veggiedude
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veggiedude,
User Rank: Apprentice
4/27/2012 | 7:37:50 PM
re: After Flashback, Apple Walled Gardens Won't Help
Mac OS 9 had a much smaller marketshare than OS X of today and yet it had up to 80 viruses - and OS X still has ZERO viruses. Trojans and other malware do exist, but not one virus has infected a Mac OS X user after 11 years of its existence.
veggiedude
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veggiedude,
User Rank: Apprentice
4/27/2012 | 7:33:48 PM
re: After Flashback, Apple Walled Gardens Won't Help
This article was interesting and its obvious the author knows the subject matter (which sadly is lacking in many tech articles). Apple was especially vulnerable at this time because they dropped support for Java in 2010 and announced Oracle would be picking up the ball. Unfortunately, Oracle dragged their feet. Only today has Oracle announced a Developer version of Java for OS X and the consumer version is still in the works.
ANON1237837896902
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ANON1237837896902,
User Rank: Apprentice
4/27/2012 | 7:14:01 PM
re: After Flashback, Apple Walled Gardens Won't Help
So wait why won't it help? You made a large stretch to imply we will lose all control over our hardware but never said why the "walled" garden approach will not help. You made some weak statements about why virus software will not work and why windows has sucked but not why the walled garden will not.

So let's assume that this is not just a slippery slope and point out what seems good about this approach. Signed code. This means that no unsigned executable can be used to attack or escalate an attack and if signed code is used apple will have something to go on to find the person. Better yet instead of apples current signature based quarantine system they can quickly disable all code signed by this person.

Apple has already massively nerffed javas threat on most users systems so now we are down to programs with bugs and apples sand boxing system should limit that threat. Bottom line is that if apple can remove a substantial number of systems from the pool of potential attack it becomes even less interesting to try.

No system will ever be perfect, but perfect is not the goal. Too damn much work to be worth it is all we have to get to.
majenkins
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majenkins,
User Rank: Ninja
4/27/2012 | 6:23:14 PM
re: After Flashback, Apple Walled Gardens Won't Help
Marketshare!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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