Android's popularity has not come about without some security issues, such as malicious apps in the Google Play marketplace. Regardless of the platform, Symantec predicts a rise in "madware," a form of mobile spam that can lead to security problems, and other threats to mobile devices in 2013. Just as you'd want to take steps to protect your laptop or desktop, you'll need to do the same on your Android.
One option is to install mobile versions of your company-sponsored security applications on your personal device, if available and allowed. You might be required to do so as part of a structured BYOD program. If not, or if you're paranoid (and if you are, it's probably best to leave the personal gear at home altogether), there's a growing menu of security apps available. You'll pay for full-featured versions, but the likes of Lookout, AVG, Avast, Webroot and Symantec's Norton brand offer basic mobile security apps for free. You'll have to do your own risk assessment to determine if a free version offers enough protection for your personal device, but it's better than nothing. Don't be the proverbial low-hanging fruit.