The five-page agreement, signed in late September by defense secretary Robert Gates and homeland security secretary Janet Napolitano, but made public only this week, creates a "framework" within which officials from DHS, DoD, the National Security Agency, and the military's new Cyber Command will work with one another on cyber-related issues. In the process, the deal increases formal ties in a relationship that, until now, has been largely ad hoc.
As part of the pact, a group of NSA cryptologic analysts will be embedded at the National Cybersecurity and Communications Center (DHS' cyber operations center) in Arlington, Va., and DHS will send Adm. Michael Brown, deputy assistant secretary of DHS for cyber security, with a support team of privacy and civil liberties personnel, to NSA's National Threat Operations Center and Cyber Command's headquarters at Fort Meade, Md. The organizations will also create a Joint Coordination Element under Brown at NSA headquarters to do joint operational planning and coordination.
While the agreement does nothing to add to or subtract from the responsibilities of any of the organizations involved, it could, in particular, improve DHS' capabilities to mitigate malware as part of its role to protect government networks and provide cybersecurity support to private companies, said Center for Strategic and International Studies senior fellow Jim Lewis.
"The easiest way to think about this is that malware has encrypted parts, and NSA is best equipped to crack the encryption, so we should give them that ability," Lewis said. "Getting them embedded in DHS will get the [National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center] to do a better job."
Embedding NSA officials within DHS is also likely a cheaper and quicker way to increase DHS' encryption capabilities than requiring DHS to ramp up its encryption skills on its own. Gates and Napolitano hinted at this in a joint statement, saying that one of the goals of the deal was to improve "economy and efficiency."
The relationship between DHS and NSA has not always been an easy one, and this deal could signal a bit of progress on that front. The March 2009 resignation letter of DHS' former cyber official Rod Beckstrom criticized the NSA's increasing involvement in cybersecurity, for example, and, while DHS has a primary responsibility over helping to protect critical infrastructure networks (think power plants, air traffic control systems, etc.), both NSA, via its Perfect Citizen project, and Cyber Command have demonstrated an interest in having an increased role there.
"This structure is designed to put the full weight of our combined capabilities and expertise behind every action taken to protect our vital cyber networks, without altering the authorities or oversight of our separate but complementary missions," Gates and Napolitano said in a joint statement. "We will improve economy and efficiency by better leveraging vital technologies and personnel to serve both Departments’ missions in full adherence to U.S. laws and regulation."