If billions of spam messages travel throughout the Internet every day, but consumers see just a few of them in their inboxes, do they really exist?
Unsolicited bulk e-mail, otherwise known as spam, accounted for about 80 percent of all the e-mail traffic on the Internet during the first three months of 2006. This was the conclusion reached by the international Messaging Anti-Abuse Working Group, whose members include AOL, Bell Canada, Cingular Wireless, EarthLink, France Telecom, Microsoft, Verizon, and Yahoo. Together, these organizations account for about 390 million mailboxes.
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"In some ways it's a good news, bad news situation," says Michael Geist, the Canada Research Chair in Internet and E-commerce Law at the University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law. "The good news is the filtering systems have become better and better in corporate environments and at Internet service providers. The level of spam users have received has decreased. The bad news is the amount of overall spam hasn't decreased at all. It may be increasing."
"The use of zombies as a tool in tandem with a real-world terrorist attack will happen, I have no doubt."
And it's getting increasingly pernicious. Messages that once pitched herbal remedies or guarantees to enlarge certain body parts now arrive ready to infect computers with viruses, spyware, or keylogging software. Once they round up enough contaminated PCs, spammers potentially can control networks of zombie bots they can use to send even more tainted e-mail or to command distributed denial of service attacks.
"The vicious content in the e-mail stream right now is beyond belief," says Neil Schwartzman, chairman of the Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email (CAUCE) in Canada. "We're not talking about the old scams we saw from a few years ago. It's a lot nastier."
Schwartzman foresees a time when zombies are employed for purposes far more devastating than sending junk e-mail. "The use of zombies as a tool in tandem with a real-world terrorist attack will happen, I have no doubt. It's obviously a scary proposition. To compound a real-world attack, it could be effective."
For example, zombies could be used to call 911 simultaneously and overwhelm the emergency response capability of a particular municipality. In a similar scenario, Christopher Maxwell, 20, of Vacaville, California, pleaded guilty in May to shutting down computers, physicians' pagers, and operating room doors in the intensive care unit at Northwest Hospital and Medical Center in Seattle by means of a botnet attack.