Despite the increasing rate of utilization by owners and contractors alike, the legal connotations of using e-commerce in construction have not been studied in depth. This paper fills this gap in literature. It identifies and analyzes the different types of legal risks involved in the use of e-commerce in construction. It also outlines the risk that contractors and professionals may face in their e-commerce implementations. A classification of e-commerce legal risks is also introduced. The legal risks discussed comprise agency, jurisdiction, contract formation, validity and errors, authentication, attribution, nonrepudiation, privacy, conflict of laws, and conflict between law and technology.
This research paper from University of Michigan deals with necessity-based and opportunity-based entrepreneurial concepts in the transition of developing economies. The author constructs a research model and conducts field research (using Serbia as a case study) to explore how different personal and regional characteristics can favor either a necessity or opportunity-based entrepreneurial environment. The paper strives to encourage discussion about national systems of innovation as a complementary and/or dominant catch-up strategy for transition and developing economies.
Schemas evolve over time to accommodate the changes in the information they represent. Such evolution causes invalidation of various artifacts depending on the schemas, such as schema mappings. In this paper, the researchers study the semantics of mapping composition in the context of mapping adaptation and compare researchers approach with the incremental approach of Velegrakis et al. It is shown that their method is superior in terms of capturing the semantics of both the original mappings and the evolution.
This research paper shows that this outsourcing, if the countries continue to diversify, causes the wage of unskilled labor in North to fall below that in South. Recent concern is of skilled-labor outsourcing, in which firms in the U.S. and other countries have drawn upon the services of skilled workers in developing countries for activities that they used to do. Motivated by this and the fact that such outsourcing would be hard to explain without technological differences, this paper explores theoretically a simple story of outsourcing in which factor proportions and technology interact across activities performed within industries or firms.
In this paper, the researchers study the interactions between modularity and outsourcing in the auto industry. Focusing on the cockpits in North America, the researchers collect data over three product architecture generations and the associated shifts in firm boundaries. They found that the outsourcing process is uneven across the processes product development and production. In addition, the rate of outsourcing differs across various phases of product development such as concept, design, engineering, and testing.