Cellular networks can't handle the data load that users are generating, so carriers increasingly are turning to "mobile data offloading," which means local Wi-Fi networks take over when needed. The major carriers--AT&T, Verizon and T-Mobile--all have public Wi-Fi networks, but other companies such as Boingo and Comcast do, too. The classic application: the stadium, known as the "extreme sports" of the wireless networking business.
It's a beautiful day at the ballpark. Forty-five thousand fans are watching the game, drinking beer, and playing with their phones. They're having a good time, but the Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, and Sprint cellular data networks are having a heart attack.
The stadium is the classic example of a location where demand for mobile data bandwidth far exceeds what it makes sense to provide on the cellular network. The demand is so great, it squeezes out capacity for voice and texting, so none of these functions work properly. The answer is to offload as much of that data as possible onto other networks, and that means Wi-Fi.
The practice of "mobile data offloading" has been increasing and will continue to in coming years. Areas that are thick with mobile users at sporadic times (such as stadiums) or all the time (such as big cities) are good candidates, as are office buildings and college campuses. Innovation in Wi-Fi hardware means that those networks can handle much more data more quickly than the mobile network can.
Third parties are doing it, too. The major cable TV companies have large networks, such as Comcast's XFinity. These companies are in a particularly good position to provide such networks to their customers because they already have extensive equipment in the areas where their customers live. Right now it's just part of their service, but it's an asset they can probably monetize through partnerships with other companies, such as cellular companies, that need it. And then there are other companies such as Boingo, which have their own networks and partner with local facilities to provide it.
A well-designed Wi-Fi network in a venue like a stadium can not only take the load off the cellular network and make your Facebook and Skype work well, but the venue and advertisers can provide new services. Think instant replay, fantasy sports opportunities, maybe even traffic reports. Because they can serve the special services almost directly to the users without having to use the public Internet, they can use huge amounts of bandwidth efficiently. Imagine having eight replay angles available 10 seconds after the play. One vendor I recently spoke with called stadiums the "extreme sports" of the wireless networking business.
There are many companies in the business of providing Wi-Fi hardware and software for crowded areas. The big dog is Cisco, which calls this "high-density Wi-Fi". It even has a stadium-specific product line called Cisco Connected Stadium Wi-Fi.
But there are many smaller companies providing high-end products in this area and there are more applications of mobile data offloading than stadiums. A carrier will likely want to put Wi-Fi on and around its busiest cells.
Once you connect to a public Wi-Fi network, you'll connect automatically thereafter if it is in range. But in most cases you have to click at least once to accept an agreement. Many users will not even notice that they have to do this, but others might be confused by the interaction.
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