North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next? - InformationWeek
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9/25/2015
12:05 PM
Larry Loeb
Larry Loeb
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North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?

It's official: ARIN finds that North America no longer has any IPv4 address available. With IoT and mobile creating more demand, what's next?

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North America has now officially run out of new IPv4 addresses.

The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN), the nonprofit association that manages the distribution of Internet number resources for North America, announced Sept. 24 that it has issued the final IPv4 addresses in its free pool.

The base technology of the Internet requires that each source or destination have its own unique identifier -- the IP address -- and 32-bit IPv4 was the first widely disseminated group of addresses for Internet connected devices in use.

IPv4 dates back to 1981. It only has room for 4.3 billion unique addresses. While that may be a large number of them, their complete consumption shows how fast the Internet has grown over the past four decades. The explosion of mobile and new Internet of Things (IoT) devices helped speed the process along faster than the original creators could ever have imagined.

"The exhaustion of the free IPv4 pool was inevitable given the Internet's exponential growth,” said John Curran, ARIN's president and CEO in a statement. "Luckily, we prepared for this eventuality with IPv6, which contains enough address space to sustain the Internet for generations. While ARIN will continue to process IPv4 requests through its wait list and the existing transfer market, organizations should be prepared to help usher in the next phase of the Internet by deploying IPv6 as soon as possible."

(Image: Courtney Keating/iStockphoto)

(Image: Courtney Keating/iStockphoto)

IPv6 was brought out in 1999 in response to IPv4's limitations. It employs a 128-bit identifier, which allows for 3.4×1038 IP addresses. That figure may also be expressed as 340 trillion, trillion, trillion (340 undecillion) IP addresses.

"When we designed the Internet 40 years ago, we did some calculations and estimated that 4.3 billion terminations ought to be enough for an experiment. Well, the experiment escaped the lab," said Vint Cerf, ARIN's chairman, in a statement.

[Read InformationWeek's interview with Vint Cerf.]

There has been a hesitance by content providers to migrate to IPv6, since consumers must also be prepared to use the protocol.

However, with the projected growth in IoT and the concomitant need for new IP addresses for those devices, there is no other way to proceed in order to gain the IP addresses that will be needed.

ARIN is making an effort to meet existing IPv4 demand with its Waiting List for Unmet Requests. Organizations can request to use blocks of addresses that have been already assigned, but are not in use for some reason.

There is also the Transfer market.

As ARIN puts it, "Qualified organizations have the option to decline placement on the Waiting List for Unmet Requests in favor of seeking IPv4 addresses via the Transfer market. IPv4 transfers allow organizations with unused IPv4 addresses to release them to another qualifying organization under applicable policy."

As ARIN says, this is a market. People and organizations who have the addresses (and are not using them) can ask for money from those who want those addresses.

The net has to go to IPv6 use or stagnate. While there may be some bumpy transitions on the way there, the outcome is rather inevitable.

Larry Loeb has written for many of the last century's major "dead tree" computer magazines, having been, among other things, a consulting editor for BYTE magazine and senior editor for the launch of WebWeek. He has written a book on the Secure Electronic Transaction Internet ... View Full Bio
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larryloeb
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larryloeb,
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10/1/2015 | 12:04:07 AM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
Yeah, it seems sort of critical to me as well.
shakeeb
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shakeeb,
User Rank: Ninja
9/30/2015 | 11:20:55 PM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
@larryloeb – IT teams need to feel this as a very critical update to ensure they are connected to the world.

 
shakeeb
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shakeeb,
User Rank: Ninja
9/30/2015 | 11:15:25 PM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
@larryloeb – I feel people seem to be lazy to adopt to IP6, but eventually they will have to. 
larryloeb
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larryloeb,
User Rank: Author
9/30/2015 | 9:10:35 AM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
Well, is it here yet?

Is it an immediate need for IT departments to react?

Is anything breaking right now?

 
zerox203
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zerox203,
User Rank: Ninja
9/30/2015 | 9:04:25 AM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
@larry/progman,

Perhaps not laziness per se. In many cases, it may be sort of like 'complacency by neccessity' as progman suggests. Overworked and understaffed IT departments don't have time to address a problem that's not immediate - so they've put it off. I have a friend who works in a compliance-heavy industry who's very standoffish about the switch - no doubt because it's going to be a nightmare for some systems under his purview. That's the part I disagree with, though; there's no point getting mad at the messenger. Knowing that it's coming is more helpful, not less, and it's what has allowed all those great resources and workshops to be produced. Whether his employer wants to pay for him to go to those workshops is a different story :).
larryloeb
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larryloeb,
User Rank: Author
9/28/2015 | 12:20:03 PM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
So, you vote for the "let's wait for the crisis" approach as being the most likely?
GAProgrammer
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GAProgrammer,
User Rank: Ninja
9/28/2015 | 12:08:51 PM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
My guess is that most organizations will just deal with the limitation for the next 3-5 years. It's not at a breaking point yet - once we get there, the organizations will be force to deal with it and implement IPv6.
larryloeb
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larryloeb,
User Rank: Author
9/27/2015 | 10:17:56 AM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
Well, that's most organizations. Prioritization is how you deal with limited resources available.

But, do you think they will have to deal with this now? Or just try and muddle on?
progman2000
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progman2000,
User Rank: Ninja
9/27/2015 | 8:27:22 AM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
If it's not broke, don't fix it. IT is too busy responding to everything that's broke - until you run out of addresses that is...
larryloeb
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larryloeb,
User Rank: Author
9/26/2015 | 6:31:51 PM
Re: North America Is Out Of IPv4 Addresses: What's Next?
This may be just the thing to force IPv6 along the adoption curve.

Do you see people just being lazy here?
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