Four Paths To Acceleration - InformationWeek

InformationWeek is part of the Informa Tech Division of Informa PLC

This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them.Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 8860726.

Business & Finance
09:45 AM

Four Paths To Acceleration

Computer engineers pushing the limits of accelerator chips are experimenting with four main technologies: FPGAs, ASICs, graphics processors, and video game chips. Each has pros and cons.

FPGAs present designers with a blank slate of silicon, which can be reprogrammed as needs arise. They're extremely hard to program but able to perform hundreds or thousands of operations at once, compared with general-purpose microprocessors, which execute instructions in series. Cray and SGI are the top suppliers of systems that use FPGAs, and Linux Networx plans to enter the market this year with a chip that will sit on the front-side bus rather than connecting through PCI-X, which the company says will yield faster computing speeds.

ASICs like ClearSpeed's CSX600 chips perform operations when they encounter data, rather than waiting to be issued instructions from software. ClearSpeed makes a dedicated ASIC for high-performance computing that can plug directly into standard x86 boards. The chips are easier to program than FPGAs but still don't support standard C and Fortran. IBM fabricates the semiconductors for ClearSpeed and recently started reselling its boards.

Graphics processors from Nvidia and ATI Technologies provide superhigh floating point performance--perhaps eight times more than a general-purpose processor--and they're relatively cheap. Drawbacks include only "single-precision" or 32-bit decimal accuracy, compared with the 64-bit double-precision technology users prefer. Users also need to program directly to the hardware, without an abstract programming environment.

Game technologies such as IBM's Cell Broadband Engine use more conventional software techniques, like library calls and compilers, than other accelerators and try to apply the physics of light and mechanics used in video games to other application domains. IBM designed the Cell chip in a partnership with Sony and Toshiba for Sony's upcoming PlayStation 3 console. IBM says it could play a role as an accelerator in servers for apps including scientific supercomputing. The chip consists of a conventional microprocessor surrounded by special floating point accelerators. But Sony has delayed the release of PlayStation 3. If Cell doesn't succeed in the consumer market, its days as a business technology could be numbered.

Return to the story:
In Depth: Supercomputers Get A Speed Boost From Specialized Chips

Illustration by Viktor Koen

We welcome your comments on this topic on our social media channels, or [contact us directly] with questions about the site.
Comment  | 
Print  | 
More Insights
2020 State of DevOps Report
2020 State of DevOps Report
Download this report today to learn more about the key tools and technologies being utilized, and how organizations deal with the cultural and process changes that DevOps brings. The report also examines the barriers organizations face, as well as the rewards from DevOps including faster application delivery, higher quality products, and quicker recovery from errors in production.
How COVID is Changing Technology Futures
Jessica Davis, Senior Editor, Enterprise Apps,  7/23/2020
10 Ways AI Is Transforming Enterprise Software
Cynthia Harvey, Freelance Journalist, InformationWeek,  7/13/2020
IT Career Paths You May Not Have Considered
Lisa Morgan, Freelance Writer,  6/30/2020
Register for InformationWeek Newsletters
Current Issue
Special Report: Why Performance Testing is Crucial Today
This special report will help enterprises determine what they should expect from performance testing solutions and how to put them to work most efficiently. Get it today!
White Papers
Twitter Feed
Sponsored Live Streaming Video
Everything You've Been Told About Mobility Is Wrong
Attend this video symposium with Sean Wisdom, Global Director of Mobility Solutions, and learn about how you can harness powerful new products to mobilize your business potential.
Sponsored Video
Flash Poll