Apple, Taxes, And Why Tim Cook Is Wrong - InformationWeek

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1/5/2016
01:06 PM
Charles Babcock
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Apple, Taxes, And Why Tim Cook Is Wrong

Apple has substituted bluster and brazen attacks on the tax system for good corporate citizenship. Why are we singling out Apple? For starters, it's No. 1 on a list of the top 30 companies with the most money held offshore, using loopholes that allow it to avoid paying US taxes on approximately $181 billion.

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On 60 Minutes Dec. 20, Apple CEO Tim Cook described allegations that Apple is avoiding taxes on its overseas holdings as "total political crap."

According to "Offshore Shell Games 2015," an October 2015 report from Citizens for Justice and the US Public Interest Research Group (PIRG), Apple is far from the only tech vendor with an alleged overseas tax dodge. The report cites Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, Cisco Systems, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Oracle, Qualcomm, and Intel among the top 30 companies with the most money held offshore. 

According to an April 2015 article in Wired, US companies overall are holding a total of $1.17 trillion offshore, and tech companies account for about half of that ($462 billion). Only 286 of the Fortune 500 companies even report their offshore holdings, according to the report.

So, why are we singling out Apple? Well, for starters, it's No. 1 on that list of the top 30 companies with the most money held offshore. Not the No. 1 tech company, the No. 1 company among all industries.

Beyond that, as a leading consumer brand, Apple has an opportunity to act as a role model for good corporate citizenship. Instead, in my opinion, the company's behavior is "total political crap."

Welcome to the Total Political Crap analysis column of InformationWeek.

According to "Offshore Shell Games 2015," Apple has booked $181.1 billion offshore -- more than any other company. The report said Apple would owe $59.2 billion in US taxes if these profits were not officially held offshore for tax purposes

The report goes on to note that a 2013 Senate investigation found that Apple has structured two Irish subsidiaries to be tax residents of neither the US, where they are managed and controlled, nor Ireland, where they are incorporated. "This arrangement ensures that they pay no tax to any government on the lion's share of their offshore profits," said the report.

In denouncing allegations of tax avoidance, Cook is resorting to the type of statement that I have come to associate with Apple whenever it feels challenged. The speaker doesn't answer the question. Instead he attacks it. Cook said the US tax code is outdated, Congress is dysfunctional, and anyway he couldn't bring those dollars "home" because the tax code would penalize Apple with a 40% tax rate.

Apple CEO Tim Cook
(Image: EdStock/iStockphoto)

Apple CEO Tim Cook

(Image: EdStock/iStockphoto)

How about we make a deal? Wouldn't it be nice if Apple paid the typical corporate tax? The statutory tax rate for corporations in the US is 35%, but the average effective rate paid by corporations after deductions and credits is 27.1%, according to Americans for Tax Fairness.

Further, a February 2014 report from Citizens for Tax Justice and the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy included the results of a survey of 288 corporations. The survey, which covered most of the Fortune 500 corporations that were profitable each year from 2008 through 2012, found that the companies paid an average effective federal tax rate of 19.4% over that period.

A mere 19.4% of Apple's offshore dollars would go a long way toward helping the US economy, wouldn't it?

[Want to learn more about Apple versus Samsung? Read Apple Worked a Broken Patent System.]

Denial of responsibility and denunciation of the question at hand is a tactic that has served Apple well in many a battle. I sat through the Apple versus Samsung trial, noting evidence being submitted about how companies other than Apple had invented the touchscreen, the swipe motion, and many of the other features that Apple was suing Samsung for using. Apple creates stylish products, and deserves its profits for doing so, but it shouldn't get to wall off other makers because they're willing to copy those ideas too.

How did the jury decide that Apple owned the ideas? One Apple spokesman after another asserted from the witness stand, We're Apple. We invent things. That's what we do. And, We feel like we've been ripped off, echoing a statement once made by Steve Jobs about Windows.

Apple produces products that capture breakthroughs, and it profits from them handsomely. To say it owns all the rights to the breakthroughs is a closed-loop form of reasoning. Its response to the offshore tax questions seems to be following similar pretzel logic.

Apple's maneuvering on taxes is too complex to unravel in one sitting -- and that's been done ably by Citizens for Tax Justice. Apple's offshore practices were also the focus of a 2013 review by the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Cook responded to the Senate review by saying Apple is "one of the biggest U.S. taxpayers" and it "hadn't done anything illegal."

In Ireland, Apple has created Apple Operations International, which is responsible for Apple's overseas operations. The US doesn't tax overseas operations; the host country does. But AOI in Ireland is a shell company, according to the Senate Subcommittee review. Ireland taxes companies based on where they are managed, and AOI holds its board meetings in Cupertino, Calif., not in Ireland.

According to a Business Insider summary of the report, three people, all Apple executives, make up the board, one of them being Irish and two California residents. "Its purpose is to serve as a cash consolidator for most of Apple's offshore affiliates," Business Insider stated in a May 21, 2013, article about the results of the Senate Subcommittee hearings.

Although Apple reportedly employed 4,000 people in Ireland as of 2013, AOI itself hadn't had any employees in 33 years, other than its three board members. It paid no taxes in either the US or Ireland, despite earning a total of $30 billion in income during the years 2009-2012, according to the Business Insider summary of the Senate Subcommittee report.

Still, as Cook has maintained, Apple isn't doing anything illegal. That's because, in my opinion, it's difficult for lawmakers writing a tax code to foresee all the maneuvers that a well paid corporate lawyer can find to evade it. If Apple hasn't violated the letter of the law, it's certainly acted contrary to its spirit and intent.

The second thing that Apple did in Ireland is even more contrary to the spirit of US tax laws. It has stored key intellectual property, which I think means designs and development specs leading to important products, with another subsidiary, Apple Sales International.

Tax laws recognize the place where the IP is produced as a standard for where taxes may be levied. Apple may do some product development in Ireland, but I doubt it is a significant part of it. By my reckoning, a strict accounting would likely show that Apple does most of its development in the US and a negligible amount overseas. 

If it's correct to state that Apple isn't breaking any law, then it would also be correct to say no one thought of the necessity of writing a law to prevent maneuvers like the ones Apple has undertaken. At the time the tax code was written, companies routinely accounted for their core IP within the borders of the country of its origin. The main reason to do otherwise, in my opinion, is to evade US taxes on the sale of products that pass through the books of ASI. Cook is right, the tax code is outdated. But that's not because the world has entered the digital age. It's outdated because Apple's maneuvers have made it outdated.

At the time of the Subcommittee investigation, ASI, like AOI, had no employees and paid no taxes to either Ireland or the US, but brought in a total of $38 billion in income in the years from 2009 to 2012, according to the Business Insider article.

By attributing the cost of the IP stored in Ireland to the jurisdiction of Ireland, Apple was able to evade US taxes. "Apple's cost-sharing arrangement facilitated the shift of $74 billion in worldwide profits away from the United States from 2009 to 2012," concluded the Business Insider summary of the Subcommittee report.

Apple has substituted bluster and brazen attacks on the tax system for good corporate citizenship. While defying the intent of US tax law, Apple enjoys the protections and benefits of the US economic system. That is, it is one of the giants of the digital age. It is benefitting from the rule of law and entrepreneurial spirt of this society, while opting out of its responsibility to give back to it.

In the European Union at least, the winds may be shifting. According to Reuters, an EU tax ruling regarding the Ireland tax shelter is expected. Apple will also pay Italy $348 million to settle six years' worth of tax disputes, and enter into an accord regarding its tax liabilities from 2015 forward.

Which do you think Apple will do? Will the company pay up, or play the odds that a dysfunctional Congress and vote-seeking politicians won't have the nerve to face down a misguided but popular company?

**Elite 100 2016: DEADLINE EXTENDED TO JAN. 15, 2016** There's still time to be a part of the prestigious InformationWeek Elite 100! Submit your company's application by Jan. 15, 2016. You'll find instructions and a submission form here: InformationWeek's Elite 100 2016.

Charles Babcock is an editor-at-large for InformationWeek and author of Management Strategies for the Cloud Revolution, a McGraw-Hill book. He is the former editor-in-chief of Digital News, former software editor of Computerworld and former technology editor of Interactive ... View Full Bio
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Charlie Babcock
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Charlie Babcock,
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1/5/2016 | 2:24:21 PM
Don't be fooled by bluster
Tim Cook reversed the terms of debate by attacking the tax code and politicians. Apple took a lot of money out of the economy during the recession recovery years in the form of iPhone and iPad revenues but did not pay it's fair share of taxes -- a way of helping the society that has sustained the company and helped it grow. Don't be fooled by bluster.
Gary_EL
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Gary_EL,
User Rank: Ninja
1/5/2016 | 5:12:00 PM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
With the current anti-tax and anti-government environment in the US, I can see why Apple is getting away with its chicanery here in the US. What I don't understand is why the EU doesn't land hard on them, as well as on Ireland. The TAX MAN COMETH!
Li Tan
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Li Tan,
User Rank: Ninja
1/9/2016 | 2:48:56 AM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
This is not something new invented by Apple - many big international giants play this kind of game. That's why the rich people become richer and richer - they have different ways to avoid tax but for us, we have to pay federal tax...
danielcawrey
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danielcawrey,
User Rank: Ninja
1/5/2016 | 7:49:05 PM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
I don't think Apple is going to pay up. What needs to be done is that the tax loophole for these Irish subsidiaries needs to be closed and the corporate income tax rate needs to be lowered. Companies paying these corporate taxes could really help the government pay for things like infrastructure upgrades. Let's figure out a way to make that happen. 
melgross
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melgross,
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1/5/2016 | 8:30:59 PM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
The argument here is backwards. The law doesn't require these companies to pay taxes on these profits if they continue to be held overseas. So Apple, and these other companies are in the right here. I find it very interesting that the EU, which is the instigator in all this, are not saying anything about all the European companies that are taking advantage of these rules, just the USA based ones.
melgross
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melgross,
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1/5/2016 | 8:20:57 PM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
What a bunch of bull this entire column is today. Apple pays more than the average corporation in this country in tax percentage. They are also the largest corporate taxpayer. Some companies, such as GE, pay NO taxes. Why isn't this about this about them? A large number of companies take advantage of the tax laws here, and elsewhere. Apple isn't even being near the worst in that. They have had operations in Ireland for decades, and have almost 6,000 people working there, and are adding more. In addition the USA is the only major developed country that requires taxes to be paid on income where taxes has already been paid, when made out of the country. A companies responsibility is to take every legal advantage possible, AMD that's what a lot of these companies are doing. If various governments aren't happy about that, then they need to change their laws.
stevew928
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stevew928,
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1/6/2016 | 10:14:25 AM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
"In addition the USA is the only major developed country that requires taxes to be paid on income where taxes has already been paid, when made out of the country."

This ^^^
melgross
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melgross,
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1/5/2016 | 8:24:31 PM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
That's ridiculous Charlie. You should know better than that. Apple does what it's supposed to do. They pay taxes on sales made here. That's all they're supposed to do. They're not supposed to pay USA taxes on profits made in foreign lands, unless they bring them back here. I'd like to remind you, and the others here, that the Republican Party has been saying that they want to eliminate the requirement to pay those taxes when bringing profits back to this country. How do you feel about that?
rradina
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rradina,
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1/6/2016 | 11:47:39 AM
Re: Don't be fooled by bluster
Charles, I recommend that you stay away from politics that aren't specific to the tech industry.  This particular issue applies to any US corporation that has international revenue.  This article is a biased rant about holding Apple to a higher ethical standard because of its success.  Success which was not and is not based in any way on the amount of taxes it pays or avoids -- to the US or any other country.

Encryption politics -- fair game.  DRM politics -- fair game.  Net neutrality politics -- fair game.  Tax politics -- find another venue.

 
soozyg
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soozyg,
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1/5/2016 | 6:57:10 PM
forward thinking
it's No. 1 on that list of the top 30 companies with the most money held offshore.

Is this what Jobs meant when he said he wanted to challenge the status quo of technology?
melgross
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melgross,
User Rank: Ninja
1/5/2016 | 8:42:13 PM
Incorrect discussion.
Folks, it would be good to remember that Apple only holds 18% of the total USA corporations holdings overseas. It's a corporate problem, not an Apple problem, even though people just love to hate Apple. Tax experts have been saying for a long time that our corporate tax code needs major revisions, and that the foreign earnings tax is the one that needs to be overhauled the most. Instead of attacking Apple this column should have been devoted to why this is happening, not just here, but for European, and other companies as well. The president offered to lower the corporate tax rate to 25% and close loopholes, but the Republican Party shut that down, because it would result in GE, and other large companies to pay taxes. Work this out folks!
lmasseus
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lmasseus,
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1/6/2016 | 9:43:22 AM
GE pays No Taxes
This article should be about those corporations that pay zero taxes in the US.  
mcp007
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mcp007,
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1/6/2016 | 9:58:41 AM
Tim Cook attacks critics without merit
Tim Cook is attacking his critics without any merit to justify his arguments such as the notion that the criticism on the issue of not paying taxes overseas is "Political crap." It's not IMHO political at all that the critics are just stating the fact that Apple pays no taxes overseas for its operations but its headquarters is located in the U.S. which is simply called corporate inversion. He simply justifies that the company can't pay 40% taxes overseas in international profits just because it costs too much? I don't think so besides lets be honest here, any company that has billions in annual global revenue including Microsoft SHOULD pay the 40% in taxes overseas becuase those taxes can be used by local governments as revenue to spur startups, research grants, local educational initiatives to give back to communities that need it the most. This corporate inversion is legal but just this is legal in and of itself does not make the method of Apple using corporate inversion to tax dodge on its obligation to pay the U.S. government its share in taxes does not make this right.

 For many years if not decade many companies in the U.S. thanks to corporate inversion have shipped their operations overseas so they can pay their workers lower wages and make the costs of manufacturing cheaper. This causes massive unemployment in the U.S. and hurts the consumer more becuase they are really paying the company to keep those jobs overseas at the expense of buying a cheaper product. Ths is what I call consumer subsidizing cheap overseas labor.
melgross
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melgross,
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1/6/2016 | 8:18:48 PM
Re: Tim Cook attacks critics without merit
Quite frankly, I don't think you understand the situation. US law doesn't require US corporations to pay any tax on earnings made, and held, overseas. Apple, and other companies, are doing nothing wrong. The law doesn't require US corporations to bring any of those earnings home either. The entire discussion here is ridiculous. The column is ridiculous. None of these companies are breaking US law.
vnewman2
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vnewman2,
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1/7/2016 | 3:10:26 PM
Re: Tim Cook attacks critics without merit
@melgross - while I'm not up on all the corporate tax laws per se, I think the issue is actually one of morality or malintent. As in, the only motivation for choosing that particular locale is soley to avoid paying taxes.
mejiac
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mejiac,
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1/7/2016 | 4:06:34 PM
Re: Tim Cook attacks critics without merit
@vnewman2,

I don't think the sole purpose of obtaining a tax shelter (althought it's a prime motivator), but for international transactions that require currency exchange and fees, it does make it much more less of a headache.

Apple has presence at a global scale, so moving resources around easily is a must for keeping things flowing.
vnewman2
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vnewman2,
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1/7/2016 | 4:52:01 PM
Re: Tim Cook attacks critics without merit
@mejiac: "We can't blame US companies for seeking tax shelters as it's simply a way of maximizing resources that can later be used for future investments and growth. Many individuals do this for the exact same reason." Well said. The ones who do blame, I suspect, are the ones who are playing by the rules and feel cheated as such.
mejiac
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mejiac,
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1/7/2016 | 4:04:01 PM
Re: Tim Cook attacks critics without merit
@melgross,

To add to your comment, this is how last year Microsoft was able to make a deal with Nokia, utilizing offshore resources.

We can't blame US companies for seeking tax shelters as it's simply a way of maximizing resources that can later be used for future investments and growth. Many individuals do this for the exact same reason.

Tech giants like Apple are no different since they are companies that have presence at a global scale, so having available capital that's easy to move around makes transactions run smoothly.

(Anyone that has had to deal with international transactions and currency exchange knows that is both a nightmare and it's very costly)
stevew928
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stevew928,
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1/6/2016 | 10:11:22 AM
US entitlement?
I guess my question is why the USA feels so entitled to tax money made elsewhere?

While Apple is headquartered in the USA, as Cook said, they make a LOT of their money with sales in non-US markets. It doesn't really make sense, either that in this time of large multi-national companies, that they should pay taxes 100% in their home country, or to each country where they do business (for the whole amount), etc.

For example, I'm a US citizen living and working in Canada. Yet, I have to file and pay taxes to the US just because I'm still a citizen..... and to Canada because I'm living and working here. It makes sense that I pay Canada, but makes little sense to still be paying the US.

It seems more like the US's argument is.... we waste one heck of a lot of money, so we're really, really in debt... and we'd really, really like to keep up our spending... so you owe us more money.... just because.
mcp007
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mcp007,
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1/6/2016 | 10:19:39 AM
Re: US entitlement?
stevew928,

Becuase Apple headquarters is in the U.S. and is an American company so by that fact it should be obligated to pay the 40% taxes overseas back to the U.S. Government to give to schools, startups, research grants and local communities. By making an incentive to keep its operations in the U.S. by lowering the U.S. corporate tax the U.S. can bring more jobs and keep investment in the U.S.
stevew928
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stevew928,
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1/6/2016 | 1:53:26 PM
Re: US entitlement?
But, for a company which is huge, and actually headquartered around the world (maybe with a 'main' one in a particular place) should all the taxes go to that one 'home' country? Even if, as Cook says, the majority of profits don't come from the USA?

Should they then move the headquarters to the country with the lowest taxs? Should all those other countries who buy their products and participate through employment, get no tax dollars?

I'm all for the USA closing loopholes and lowering their tax rates, as I think that would be good for the country, and the actual correct way to deal with it (rather than trying to guilt companies into not working within the laws to their benefit).
TerryB
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TerryB,
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1/6/2016 | 1:17:09 PM
Re: US entitlement?
@stevew928, I guess I don't get why you would pay taxes twice? Are you being compensated more to make up for this? Or do the Canadian taxes just replace what you would pay to your state? Well, assuming you live in state that has income taxes.

I've seen stories talking about professional athletes getting more money when playing for Canadian team because their taxes higher in Canada. But never saw they were being taxed twice? You are living it though so I'm sure you know what you are talking about. But I just don't know why you would personally do that unless your employer boosts your pay to make up for this?
stevew928
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stevew928,
User Rank: Ninja
1/6/2016 | 2:02:08 PM
Re: US entitlement?
Basically, because the US is trying to get taxes any way they can. To my knowledge, they are the only country that does this.

I'm not sure what the situation is for temporary workers (out of country), or companies with a satellite office in Canada. I'm a US citizen, but also have permanant residency status in Canada. I don't work for a US company, nor does my wife.

Unless we renounce our US citizenship, the US taxes us based on our income... Canadian income. It's not at the same rate as if we lived and worked in the US, and I think it doesn't apply under a certain income level, but taxed. We have to file (and pay) just like if we still lived in the USA.
Charlie Babcock
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Charlie Babcock,
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1/6/2016 | 12:34:01 PM
Apple apologists say it pays 'more than the average'
I run into Apple admirers all the time who say things like "Apple pays more than the average corporation in this country in tax percentage. They are also the largest corporate taxpayer." These are generalities that don't address the specifics of the case. Apple is the richest corporation in the world. I'd like to see the basis for the claim it pays more than average; it's a thin line of defense anyhow. Many companies have holdings offshore but no company has been as clever at finding the ill-defined space in the tax laws of both the U.S. and Ireland. No company has gone to the lengths that Apple has to protect overseas cash. And I'd like to see a strict accounting on the claim it's derived all $181 billion from overseas sales. Given the cleverness of moving IP to Ireland, I'm not going to bet on that side of the ledger.
vnewman2
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vnewman2,
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1/6/2016 | 12:56:02 PM
Re: Apple apologists say it pays 'more than the average'
Especially when people feel they are being treated unfairly, if any type of loophole exists, they will exploit that loophole. If they play by the rules, the corporation takes a huge hit, so they make their own rules that are in the best interest of their company. I'm not saying it's right, but it's simple (arithmetic), really.
RogerF568
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RogerF568,
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1/6/2016 | 1:06:46 PM
Apple, Taxes & Why Tim Cook is Wrong
Here is Judge Learned Hand (1872-1961), US Court of Appeals in the case of Gregory v. Helvering 69 F.2d 809, 810 (2d Cir. 1934), aff'd, 293 U.S. 465, 55 S.Ct. 266, 79 L.Ed. 596 (1935)...

"...Anyone may arrange his affairs so that his taxes shall be as low as possible; he is not bound to choose that pattern which best pays the treasury. There is not even a patriotic duty to increase one's taxes.  Over and over again the Courts have said that there is nothing sinister in so arranging affairs as to keep taxes as low as possible. Everyone does it, rich and poor alike and all do right, for nobody owes any public duty to pay more than the law demands."

If you have a different understanding of the law than this, Charles Babcock, I hope that you'll share it with us.
jries921
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jries921,
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1/6/2016 | 8:57:43 PM
Perhaps...
...we should set tax rates on the basis of expected revenue minus expected cost of collection instead of listening to demagogues on both the left and right.  If corporate tax rates really are too high, then that will tend to show up in how hard corporations try to avoid paying it, not in how loud thewhining about "double taxation" is; or about how half the population are freeloaders who pay no tax at all.  Same goes with personal income tax; same goes with sales tax; same goes with import duties and just about any other tax one can think of.
Charlie Babcock
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Charlie Babcock,
User Rank: Author
1/7/2016 | 8:47:32 PM
'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...
Rradina, on page 2 of the comments, is advising me to stay away from topics I don't know much about. That's good advice. Unfortunately, I've never been able to follow it.
Technocrati
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Technocrati,
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1/7/2016 | 8:56:28 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...

@Charlie    Good for you !  Hold your ground.   I loved the piece !

vnewman2
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vnewman2,
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1/8/2016 | 1:26:39 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...
Last weekend I watched Alex Gibney's CNN film "Steve Jobs: The Man in the Machine" which I think is worth the watch even if you have seen other films about him. It touches briefly on the tax issue and Steve's take on it, which, at its essence, is what Tim Cook has been saying.
Technocrati
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Technocrati,
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1/8/2016 | 7:25:09 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...

@vnewman2   Thanks for the information, I remember hearing about this and then it seem to fade away.   Well, I found it and will be watching it this weekend.

This is the documentary that the Apple minions refused to help out on, in other words must see TV.

Technocrati
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Technocrati,
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1/8/2016 | 7:29:04 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...

" ...It touches briefly on the tax issue and Steve's take on it, which, at its essence, is what Tim Cook has been saying."

 

@vnewman2   This doesn't surprise me.  I am slowly becoming convinced Cook is incapable of producing an orginal thought - probably why he inherited the position. 

Apparently being a "yes Man" can get you places.

 

Don't believe this though, Apple is a special case.

vnewman2
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vnewman2,
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1/9/2016 | 7:57:50 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...
@Technocrati - I would agree with you there. Part of Steve Jobs' charm - assumming there is some ;) - is that there was no one quite like him.
vnewman2
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vnewman2,
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1/11/2016 | 8:27:29 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...
I just watched the CNN special again because I missed some parts: I think this nicely sums up Steve Jobs the attitude that prevails at Apple:

"He found aloophole where if you lease a car you have a 6 month period to put license plates on it and so he leased the same car every 6 months and never put a license plate on it...it gives you a glimpse into how he thought he was above the law." - Yukari Iwantani Kane, Author, Haunted Empire
Technocrati
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Technocrati,
User Rank: Ninja
1/12/2016 | 6:12:09 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...

@vnewman2      Just finished watching the piece last night, it was very interesting to say the least .  Always two sides to every story so it was nice to see Job's tale from another angle.

And I think you are right - that whole issue with the license plate does lead one to think he thought he could out smart the system.   He was very business savvy and had very savvy people working with him so the avoidance of taxes would have been right up his alley.

vnewman2
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vnewman2,
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1/12/2016 | 6:19:58 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...
@Technocrati - I am so glad you watched it!  I thought it was riviting!  I feel like the adoption piece explains everything about what made him tick.  Other great points I thought were:

Steve ruling by chaos

Viewing the computer as an extension of the self.
Technocrati
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Technocrati,
User Rank: Ninja
1/13/2016 | 6:00:45 PM
Re: 'Charlie, stay away from tax politics.' Good advice but...

@vnewman2    Thanks again for reminding me of this documentary and I agree.  I do think being adopted had some deep seated affect on his prospective towards the World. 

There were many fascinating aspects to his life that to this point had not been widely discussed.  

I will definitely watch again because there are many subtle inferences that might be missed the first time.

In the end, Jobs seemed to be at the right place at the right time.

wb9ddf
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wb9ddf,
User Rank: Apprentice
1/8/2016 | 2:55:46 PM
Good for Apple and all of us!
From my Libertarian point of view, Apple is doing what any patriotic citizen should do.  They are keeping as much money as possible out of the hands of Congress for as long as possible.  Corporation's first responsibility is to their stockholders.  By keeping the money, they are increasing the value of the company and ultimately the value of the stocks.  To do anything else would be irresponsible.
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