Re: Is it the individual or the culture in which they operate?
Interestingly, Hyundai and Kia cheated in a smarter way than VW, though they were still caught. The two South Korean car makers manipulated tests for favorable results without resorting to software trickery.
From the EPA: "For example, Hyundai and Kia restricted their testing to a temperature range where its vehicles coasted farther and faster and prepared vehicle tires for optimized results. In processing test data, Hyundai and Kia chose favorable results rather than average results from a large number of tests. In certain cases, Hyundai and Kia relied predominantly on data gathered when test vehicles were aided by a tailwind."
So there's probably a lot of cheating that goes on. Some of it is just more obvious.