NASA Finds Martian Atmosphere Stripped By Solar Storms - InformationWeek

InformationWeek is part of the Informa Tech Division of Informa PLC

This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them.Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 8860726.

IoT
IoT
Government
News
11/6/2015
11:05 AM
50%
50%

NASA Finds Martian Atmosphere Stripped By Solar Storms

NASA is on a roll with another intriguing discovery that the loss of atmosphere on Mars was due to eons of solar storms.

NASA's Apollo Archive: 10 More Breathtaking Images
NASA's Apollo Archive: 10 More Breathtaking Images
(Click image for larger view and slideshow.)

Mars is back at the forefront of the public's imagination again, thanks to the blockbuster sci-fi thriller The Martian and NASA's discovery of liquid water on the planet's surface.

And now it's about to get a lot more interesting.

This week, NASA research revealed that eons of solar storms stripped ions from the planet's upper atmosphere, transforming a formerly warm and wet environment that might have supported surface life to the cold, arid body Mars is today.

The discovery comes thanks to NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, which tracks how solar wind and ultraviolet light strip gas from of the top of the planet's atmosphere.

"Like the theft of a few coins from a cash register every day, the loss becomes significant over time," Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN's principal investigator at the University of Colorado, Boulder, wrote in a Nov. 5 statement. "We've seen that the atmospheric erosion increases significantly during solar storms, so we think the loss rate was much higher billions of years ago when the sun was young and more active.

The goal of NASA's MAVEN mission, launched to Mars in November 2013, is to determine how much of the planet's atmosphere and water have been lost to space. It's also the first such mission devoted to understanding how the sun might have influenced atmospheric changes on the Red Planet.

The most recent results indicate that atmospheric loss is experienced in three different regions of Mars: Down the "tail," where the solar wind flows behind Mars and where almost three-quarters of the escaping ions come from; above the Martian poles in a "polar plume"; and from an extended cloud of gas surrounding the planet.

A solar storm strips ions from the Martian atmosphere in this artist rendering.

(Image: NASA/GSFC)

A solar storm strips ions from the Martian atmosphere in this artist rendering.

(Image: NASA/GSFC)

Nearly 25% of escaping ions are from the plume region, with just a minor contribution from the extended cloud, the MAVEN mission discovered.

"Mars appears to have had a thick atmosphere warm enough to support liquid water which is a key ingredient and medium for life as we currently know it," John Grunsfeld, astronaut and associate administrator for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, wrote in a statement. "Understanding what happened to the Mars atmosphere will inform our knowledge of the dynamics and evolution of any planetary atmosphere."

Grunsfield explained learning what can cause changes to a planet's environment from one that could host microbes at the surface to one that doesn't is important to know, and is a key question that is being addressed in NASA's journey to Mars.

[Do you have the right stuff? NASA wants to talk to you..]

The findings also revealed that the erosion of the Martian atmosphere increases significantly during solar storms. A series of dramatic solar storms hit the planet in March 2015, and MAVEN found that the loss of ions was accelerated.

Solar winds are streams of particles, mainly protons and electrons, flowing from the sun's atmosphere at a speed of about 1 million miles per hour.

Unlike Earth, Mars lacks a global magnetic field to deflect the incoming solar wind. Instead, charged particles from the Sun crash into the Mars upper atmosphere, and can accelerate Martian ions into space.

The space agency also revealed an animation showing the impact of solar wind on the Martian atmosphere over time -- MAVEN observed this process in action for the first time by measuring the velocity of ions escaping from Mars.

Nathan Eddy is a freelance writer for InformationWeek. He has written for Popular Mechanics, Sales & Marketing Management Magazine, FierceMarkets, and CRN, among others. In 2012 he made his first documentary film, The Absent Column. He currently lives in Berlin. View Full Bio

We welcome your comments on this topic on our social media channels, or [contact us directly] with questions about the site.
Comment  | 
Print  | 
More Insights
Comments
Newest First  |  Oldest First  |  Threaded View
Charlie Babcock
50%
50%
Charlie Babcock,
User Rank: Author
11/6/2015 | 8:10:42 PM
Another plus for Earth -- a strong, protective magnetic field
So the Earth's strong global magnetic field deflects the solar wind. Shouldn't that be added to the list of qualities needed by any future planet that we think we might inhabit? It's not enough just to be the right distance from the sun. We're much closer to the sun than Mars is. It takes the solar winds an additional 450 hours to reach Mars after passing Earth, giving them a chance to dissipate. I think the list of requirements for another inhabitable planet is going to keep getting longer, and the list of candidates shorter. Maybe we should tale care of the one we've got.
InformationWeek Is Getting an Upgrade!

Find out more about our plans to improve the look, functionality, and performance of the InformationWeek site in the coming months.

News
Remote Work Tops SF, NYC for Most High-Paying Job Openings
Jessica Davis, Senior Editor, Enterprise Apps,  7/20/2021
Slideshows
Blockchain Gets Real Across Industries
Lisa Morgan, Freelance Writer,  7/22/2021
Commentary
Seeking a Competitive Edge vs. Chasing Savings in the Cloud
Joao-Pierre S. Ruth, Senior Writer,  7/19/2021
White Papers
Register for InformationWeek Newsletters
2021 State of ITOps and SecOps Report
2021 State of ITOps and SecOps Report
This new report from InformationWeek explores what we've learned over the past year, critical trends around ITOps and SecOps, and where leaders are focusing their time and efforts to support a growing digital economy. Download it today!
Video
Current Issue
Monitoring Critical Cloud Workloads Report
In this report, our experts will discuss how to advance your ability to monitor critical workloads as they move about the various cloud platforms in your company.
Slideshows
Flash Poll