Geekend: Pardon Me, Is That A Nose On Your Arm? - InformationWeek

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1/3/2015
07:06 AM
David Wagner
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Geekend: Pardon Me, Is That A Nose On Your Arm?

Do we really need to grow replacement noses on arms and foreheads and other bizarre places? With 3D printing we could just order replacement body parts from Amazon.

There's an old joke that's in danger of becoming extinct. It goes: "I have a dog with no nose." The other person exclaims, "No nose? How does he smell?" The punchline: "Awful." Soon, no one, not even dogs in bad jokes, will have to go without noses or other parts because stem cell research is growing noses and using nasal cells to help the body heal elsewhere.

In the last year or two, scientists have shown success in multiple ways at regrowing noses. The first news came from England where stem cells were used to regrow a man's nose on his arm. The man was losing his nose to skin cancer. Doctors made a mold of the nose and grew a new one in the mold using stem cells. Three months later the man had a new nose (which, sadly, regulators have not yet allowed him to use).

Shortly after this came news from China where doctors regrew a man's nose on his forehead.

It's a little bizarre, sure. I bet these guys would rather have a nose in the traditional place for no other reason than finding a shirt that's "breathable" must be difficult. On the other hand, having no nose at all is both a cosmetic problem and a health issue. You'd probably be willing to grow a nose anywhere it took to have one again, too.

Recently, the same scientists who grew the arm nose have been able to grow noses, ears, and other small organs in the laboratory. They've implanted windpipes and tear ducts, but they're still waiting for regulatory approval to attach the nose.

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Assuming it all works, it's great news for victims of violence, soldiers, and others who have suffered facial injuries.

The nose is at the center, so to speak, of stem cell research in general. Stem cells from the nose have been used to repair other parts of the body. Nasal stem cells have been used to cure spinal injuries and Parkinson's Disease, for instance.

Why nasal stem cells? They are easier to harvest and less controversial than embryonic stem cells. They are literally the leftovers we throw away after sinus surgery. Adult stem cells like those from the nose (and from fat and blood and other locations) can replicate themselves.

There is a downside, though. Stem cell research, while amazing, still has some unknown long-term effects that require further study. For instance, a woman who was implanted with nasal stem cells eight years ago in an attempt cure her spinal injury not only did not recover from her injuries, but she discovered a mass growing in her back. When doctors removed the mass they found it was a nose. Not a complete nose, but enough of one to produce mucous.

On the bright side, 11 of the doctors' 20 patients showed improved mobility and feeling in their lower extremities after the nasal stem cell therapy.

Unfortunate situations like the nose on the back call into question whether we even need bodies to grow stem cells. Maybe we should choose 3D printing instead. Printed noses -- and other organs such as kidneys and livers -- are quite amazing. These organs also require stem cells but are built as whole units outside of the body, meaning they are less likely to produce unexpected body parts.

3D printing just might make stem cell research more palatable to regulators and those who are uncomfortable with stem cell therapies for religious or philosophical reasons. By combining the two we might reach the point where we can print and grow our own replacement parts just like we machine a new transmission for a model T.

Your next nose might come from a factory, fully grown, in a box shipped to you by Amazon and attached by your local surgeon. You might even grow a whole new face for yourself if you don't want to look like you anymore. And that might just be what you want to do, because if we can machine replacement parts, we're probably going to live a long time. We might want a change of face after a few centuries. You might get tired of looking at yourself in a mirror.

What do you think? Will we see the day of 3D-printed replacement body parts? How does your dog smell? Sound off in the Comments section.

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David has been writing on business and technology for over 10 years and was most recently Managing Editor at Enterpriseefficiency.com. Before that he was an Assistant Editor at MIT Sloan Management Review, where he covered a wide range of business topics including IT, ... View Full Bio
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Gary_EL
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Gary_EL,
User Rank: Ninja
1/3/2015 | 3:35:00 PM
Absolutely Amazing!
I was about to make a joke about cloning my teeth so I don't have to come up with megabucks for dental implants when I read about the potential here for helping people who have been the victims of heretofore hopeless spinal injury. This is really amazingly great news.
PedroGonzales
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PedroGonzales,
User Rank: Ninja
1/3/2015 | 9:44:49 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
I think the biggest area of potential is organ transplant.  If scientist scan figure how to 3D print an organ for a person that their body won't reject, they would have hit the goldmine.  Imagine people who have lost their sight, they could print new cells that could give them their sight back.  The sky is the limit here.
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/4/2015 | 6:38:15 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Gary, 

You can already have 3D printed teeth for implants; they are faster to make and cheaper than traditional ones. I know some dentists are doing this in a dental lab in Germany. 

-Susan 
Gary_EL
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Gary_EL,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 11:51:03 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Interesting. I did some follow-up, but it seems that even after the teeth are printed, there is still the very expensive process of securing them to the jaw. But just imagine - "printing" teeth!
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/4/2015 | 11:59:53 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Gary, 

The 3D printed tooth goes screwed to a metal screw that goes into the bone; this is done by a micro-surgery. A woman in the Netherlands got a 3D printed new jaw some years ago. It was the first of its kind. 

-Susan
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 5:58:12 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Susan, it seems that 3D printers are progressing at a very fast pace. I was of the view that 3D printers had a limited range of material with which they could function and did not know that biocompatible materials existed that could be used in a 3D printer.

Another area of limitations that I had in mind was of the scale of the object, but since 3d printers are printing tooth sized objects then, it means that at the small scale these printers are progressing as well.

Combine stem cell research with 3D printers and maybe, the medical tourism industry will be the first to be hit by this new technology. Interesting times!
David Wagner
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David Wagner,
User Rank: Strategist
1/5/2015 | 9:29:32 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
@Brian.Dean- what's intersting about the 3-D printing of organs is that what they print is relatively tiny and then it grows itself beyond that. The printing is mostly the shape and outside structure for the living tissue to grow into. So theoretically, scale shouldn't be an issue though I suspect there are limits to knowing exactly how the mold gets filled.
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/5/2015 | 1:33:47 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
@David, I remember watching a documentary in which scientists were creating a human ear in a lab dish. Their major difficulty was to get the cells to create the soft bone structure of the ear -- 3D printing just made that documentary obsolete.

I hope scanning technology is also progressing at an equal pace, because consumers will require a technology that can capture 3D shapes.

I have heard of spectroscopy scanners that have become so small that the device can fit in a user's hand (powered by the cloud in the background), the device can report data down to the molecular level to the user. For instance, if a user scans sugar then, the device will display C12H22O11.
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/6/2015 | 6:23:39 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Brian, 

Human organs have already been 3D printed; in a near future these organs will be used for transplants. The only thing that scientists have to perfect is related to the blood vesels. After they can put all the pieces together this is going to be yet another step towards life extension. 

-Susan
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 5:33:03 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
For the ultimate low cost dental care, I guess, the world has to wait for Nano-bots that live with-in the body 24/7, filling any cavities that develop in the teeth and remove wisdom teeth automatically. But even now, I think it is great that an individual can custom mold a fitting for a chipped tooth.  
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/6/2015 | 6:03:53 AM
Into the future
Brian, 

I certainly can't wait for those nanobots to be used for life extension and have some living within me. :D How exciting. I know some people will not like the idea and many others are going to start thinking about the nanoboots being hacked, security, and all that jazz as their first thought. However, this super excites me. Would you have some nanobots embedded within you? 

-Susan    
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/6/2015 | 5:49:01 PM
Re: Into the future
Susan, I would not mind having Nano-bots in my body. However, I would wait for the advanced versions that are capable of giving an end of year update about the major events that took place, in a Osmosis Jones (2001, movie) type fashion, in full HD!
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/6/2015 | 6:15:28 PM
Re: Into the future
Brian, 

We can have them by around 2030, according to what I have read. I almost got an NFC chip implanted last month at a bio-hacker summit. :D I changed my mind when I saw the needle. 

-Susan
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/6/2015 | 6:56:45 PM
Re: Into the future
Susan, if 2030 is a reasonable time-frame then, it will be interesting to see firsthand the advance of technology in the next 200 years, because Nano-bots should extend life by that amount of time at a minimum.

And speaking of needles, I have seen some great art work that has been applied to the human body using 3D printers. Artists sometime get the final result wrong -- 3D printers are good in this regard as well.
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/6/2015 | 7:10:58 PM
Re: Into the future
Brian, 

Yes, around 2030 is what they said. Nanobots will help fight cancer and other conditions. If there is a nanobot already ready in your system by the time the first cell with cancer appears and then it's exterminated it's the end of it. 

You mean 3D printed tattoos? 

-Susan
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/6/2015 | 7:46:14 PM
Re: Into the future
Susan, great explanation of a series of events!

I had always assumed that medicine might be the only cure for cancer, but the way technology is progressing it seems that silicon could cure cancer.

Yes, I was referring to 3D printers that are used to printer tattoos. Technology has an overlapping aspect to it. 3D printers might help the creation of advanced precision control catheters that can help doctors to preform heart surgery, etc., until the Nano-bots arrive.
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/7/2015 | 6:09:08 AM
Re: Into the future
Brian, 

Fascinating, indeed. It makes sense to me that technology, instead of medicine, is the one that will cure cancer and other conditions. If medicine didn't get a cure by now it probably won't. The nanobots coming to the rescue remind me of the movie Fantastic Journey. A group of scientists in a submarine were minitaturized and injected into the patient's blood stream because only being within the body they could perform a surgery he needed. 

Interesting. Yes, there is still a great pontential in 3D printing.

-Susan
David Wagner
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David Wagner,
User Rank: Strategist
1/5/2015 | 9:26:41 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
@Susan- From what I hear (though I can't say anything about the German lab specifically) is that 3-D printed teeth are still not as good as other types of implants. That said, I'm sure it won't be long until they are. There's a lot of experimentation that goes into getting the engineering just right. 
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/6/2015 | 6:41:58 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
David, 

The German lab is successfully producing 3D printed teeth that are being used in implants in Germany and Estonia. I positively know about these two countries. Most likely the German lab is also working with other dentists in other EU countries, but this is what I know for sure.

I know a dentist in Estonia who works in collaboration with the German lab and she said these 3D printed teeth and good and even better than the traditional ones due to the precision of the system. I met the director of the German lab soem years ago as well. By then, his team had already been working on 3D printed teeth for quite some time, which means by now they are just much better than when they started. 

-Susan 
danielcawrey
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danielcawrey,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 8:45:53 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
I think there is huge pontential for 3D printing. It may be a ways off, because it seems like the innovation is going to come from larger companies rather than smaller ones because there is a certain degree of consoidation and cost in that arena. 

But the opportunities are going to be really great in the 3D printing space nonetheless. 
Broadway0474
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Broadway0474,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 9:59:45 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
As the article intimated, the issue that innovators will bump up against is regulation. How close --- or better yet, how far away --- is any FDA approval of 3D-printed bio-material? And once it's approved, it will need to be heavily regulated, right? Otherwise, you'll have people getting nose transplants from butchers on every street corner.
batye
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batye,
User Rank: Ninja
1/12/2015 | 8:20:33 AM
interesting
@Dave, interesting to know... it like asking are we changing technology or technology changing us... we are living in interesting times
kstaron
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kstaron,
User Rank: Ninja
1/16/2015 | 4:17:20 PM
When will regulations catch up?
I remember when they were growing ears on mice, now we can grow our own noses (even if we can't attach them yet). Though I imagine 3D printing won't make the opponents of stem cell research any less nervous. Because if you can make an organ, eventually you can make a whole person and then you have a whole slew of ethical issues to wade through. How long do you think before the regulation catch up to the science so people can get the noses attached in the traditional place?
David Wagner
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David Wagner,
User Rank: Strategist
1/16/2015 | 5:09:32 PM
Re: When will regulations catch up?
A Person? See, now that's an interesting step. Because I'm pretty sure a surgeon right now could take a foot from one person, a hand from another person, a heart from someone else, and catalog all the different body parts and so them all together. I'm pretty sure we wouldn't have a person at the end of that exercise.

There's some sort of "spark of life" at the end of all these parts. I'm not going to call it a soul. I won't even call it a mind. But there's some condition that separates a collection of body parts that's alive from one that is dead. I think there's the trick we're not close to figuring out.
batye
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batye,
User Rank: Ninja
2/3/2015 | 11:14:28 AM
Re: When will regulations catch up?
@Dave interesting point Dave make me think about history old question alive or not soul or soulless...
batye
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batye,
User Rank: Ninja
2/3/2015 | 11:15:45 AM
Re: When will regulations catch up?
@kstaron, interesting point as technology do changes rapidly and legal regulation playing catchup... with it...
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