IBM Watson Speeds Drug Research - InformationWeek

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8/28/2014
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IBM Watson Speeds Drug Research

IBM Watson moves from supplying known answers to tough questions to making its own discoveries in life sciences and pharmaceutical research.

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IBM's Watson cognitive computing technology has helped doctors, loan officers, corporations, and even military veterans find answers to complex questions. The next big challenge for Watson is helping researchers explore the unknown.

IBM announced Thursday that its Watson Discovery Advisor technology is now available as a cloud service. Backing up Watson's value in research roles, Baylor College of Medicine and IBM published this week a peer-reviewed study that came up with six promising paths for cancer research with the aid of Watson Discovery Advisor.

As part of Baylor's research, Watson analyzed more than 70,000 scientific articles related to p53, a protein that has been linked to many cancers. Automated analysis carried out by Watson helped Baylor biologists and data scientists identify six proteins that modify p53 and that should be targeted for new research. Most important, the discovery was made in a matter of weeks, according to IBM.

[Read about IBM's big deal with Apple: Apple, IBM Deal: When Siri Meets Watson. ]

"In the life sciences industry at large, researchers typically come across one of these target proteins per year," said IBM Watson VP John Gordon. "Baylor working with Watson found six targets, and the first two that they've taken into wet labs have been validated, so they're outpacing the industry."

The pace of biomedical research has greatly accelerated in recent years with breakthroughs in speedy, low-cost DNA analysis. What's more, leading pharmaceutical companies such as Pfizer, Novartis, and many others are routinely finding correlations among genomic, clinical trial, and de-identified electronic medical records. Where Watson stands out, according to IBM, is its cognitive computing understanding of language and chemistry to make human-like leaps in understanding at computer-analysis speeds.

"People are already finding correlations among disparate sets of data, but because Watson can understand concepts and interpret the direction of research, it can uncover relationships that are more subtle," Gordon told InformationWeek in a phone interview.

Baylor College of Medicine has published a peer-reviewed cancer study that was accelerated with help from IBM Watson Discovery Advisor.
Baylor College of Medicine has published a peer-reviewed cancer study that was accelerated with help from IBM Watson Discovery Advisor.

For example, research papers don't just declare whether proteins are related to p53 or not, drawing simple, binary conclusions; they explore whether these proteins accelerate or inhibit mutation and what chemical processes they might catalyze. Now multiply the challenge of absorbing these subtleties by 70,000 research papers.

"Even if I'm reading five papers a day, it could take me nearly 38 years to completely understand all of the research already available today on this protein," said Dr. Olivier Lichtarge, professor of molecular and human genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology at Baylor, in a statement from IBM. "Watson has demonstrated the potential to accelerate the rate and the quality of breakthrough discoveries."

IBM also announced Thursday that drug giants Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi are working with Watson to speed research initiatives. Johnson & Johnson is collaborating with the Discovery Advisor team to teach Watson to read and understand scientific papers that detail clinical trial outcomes used in evaluating treatments. The collaborators are hoping to accelerate drug comparative-effectiveness studies. Sanofi hopes to speed drug re-purposing, which is the discovery of alternative indications for existing drugs.

Among other new applications for cognitive computing, IBM recently announced that its Watson Engagement Advisor service, an application aimed at call-center and customer-support roles, is being used by USAA as a web- and mobile-support option for advising US military personnel on a range of financial and life decisions when they decide to transition to civilian life.

The Watson Discovery Advisor cloud service will initially target life sciences applications, but IBM said it also has the potential to transform research in the fields of law, education, chemical engineering, metallurgy,  and other sciences.

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Doug Henschen is Executive Editor of InformationWeek, where he covers the intersection of enterprise applications with information management, business intelligence, big data and analytics. He previously served as editor in chief of Intelligent Enterprise, editor in chief of ... View Full Bio

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Alison_Diana
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Alison_Diana,
User Rank: Author
8/29/2014 | 10:04:57 AM
Re: Watson Pre-Announce-Re-Announce Syndrome
Totally agree, Susan. Not only has IBM spent a ton of resources on the technology, but they seem to be expending a lot of energy in seeking out different partnerships across an array of different organizations, each of which has an interesting take on a particular project or problem. Given the technologies Watson is based on, it will only improve as it learns, and I think it's going to be really, really exciting as it gets more mature and partners push its limits.
Alison_Diana
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50%
Alison_Diana,
User Rank: Author
8/29/2014 | 10:02:43 AM
Re: Asset possibility
Every time I speak to IBM about Watson, they are always very fast to stress the top role people play in using Watson. I'm not sure whether that's to allay the medical community's fears, prospective patient's worries, or because that's the reality, but I lean toward the latter -- it is the way the system is designed. Just as people might now collaborate with other human experts, then lean toward one person or another's  opinion, they can use Watson in the same manner. 
D. Henschen
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D. Henschen,
User Rank: Author
8/28/2014 | 10:44:31 PM
Re: Who would have guessed ...
That's read, interpret and make connections much faster than any human could... reading fast is just the first step.
Susan_Nunziata
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Susan_Nunziata,
User Rank: Strategist
8/28/2014 | 5:19:41 PM
Re: Watson Pre-Announce-Re-Announce Syndrome
@Ron_Hodges: Tech history is littered with hardware and software that were too far ahead of their time. Somehow, I don't think Watson will end up on that list, though. While we have a long way to go before we truly understand how to apply this kind of cognitive computing resource, eventually Watson-like computing will become commonplace. I only hope I'm not too old to enjoy it!
Susan_Nunziata
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Susan_Nunziata,
User Rank: Strategist
8/28/2014 | 5:16:32 PM
Re: Watson's on it
@Charlie: You read my mind! Next, I'd like to see Watson's capabilities applied to helping goernments and NGOs figure out how to provide steady sources of safe drinking water and food to the millions of people around the world who currently need those things.
Charlie Babcock
IW Pick
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Charlie Babcock,
User Rank: Author
8/28/2014 | 4:57:45 PM
Watson's on it
The problem of identifying when and how life's chemistry goes wrong is a huge one, and I for one am glad Watson is working on it. Better Watson than me.
David F. Carr
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David F. Carr,
User Rank: Author
8/28/2014 | 4:20:19 PM
Who would have guessed ...
... that the most valuable thing we could teach a computer to do was read really fast.
Laurianne
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Laurianne,
User Rank: Author
8/28/2014 | 2:37:41 PM
Re: Watson Pre-Announce-Re-Announce Syndrome
The medical research is much more interesting than Jeopardy, but little in the research world moves quickly.
D. Henschen
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D. Henschen,
User Rank: Author
8/28/2014 | 12:40:36 PM
Watson is not exactly comparable to iPad
I wouldn't compare an intuitive hand-held device to a technology that has to be trained to understand a body of knowledge. Apparently Baylor has come up with a toolkit that helps with loading of scientific papers related to medical research, but that was developed based on collaborative work dating back to 2012. This is not an out-of-the-box or out-of-the-cloud proposition. 
D. Henschen
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D. Henschen,
User Rank: Author
8/28/2014 | 9:35:12 AM
Watson Pre-Announce-Re-Announce Syndrome
IBM talked extensively about Discovery Advisor in January at a big Watson event in downtown NYC. The new news here is the cloud service release and the publication of Baylor's successful study, but you get the feeling that IBM would dearly love to get on the other side of these collaborative partnerships and into commercially successful implementations. In putting Watson under a PR microscope since the beginning by way of Jeopardy, IBM has put the pressure on to quickly mature a technology that has to go through the hype cycle like everything else. That could take years.
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