Brazil is one of the first from developing world to initiate and maintain innovation capability especially in the switching component of the telecommunications equipment industry. Employing a sectored system of innovation perspective, this research paper undertakes a comprehensive evaluation of the efforts made by various components of the innovation system and especially the research and policy making parts, to maintain this capability. The ensuing analysis shows that the innovation system is learning to cope with changes its external environment in a bid to maintain existing capability and has even managed to enhance capability in areas such as manufacturing and marketing.
Using the rich micro data set of the World Bank Investment Climate Survey, this research paper examines the determinants of productivity among manufacturing firms in the context of a least developed country, Tanzania. In particular it seeks to evaluate the importance of technological variables - such as R&D, education and training, innovation, foreign ownership, licensing and ISO certification - and institutional variables - such as access to credit, health of the workforce, regulation and business support services.
India has a sizeable telecom equipment manufacturing industry. The industry, which was originally dominated by just one state-owned corporation, has now been deregulated. Imported technologies were shown to be inappropriate to the usage pattern prevailing in the country. The country has a history of extreme dependence on foreign technology imports through essentially the licensing route to manufacture large switching equipment. The paper defines innovation capability in telecoms equipment in terms of the ability to conceptualize, design, and manufacture state-of-the-art telecommunications equipment coupled with the ability to keep pace with important technological changes.