Geekend: Pardon Me, Is That A Nose On Your Arm? - InformationWeek

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1/3/2015
07:06 AM
David Wagner
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Geekend: Pardon Me, Is That A Nose On Your Arm?

Do we really need to grow replacement noses on arms and foreheads and other bizarre places? With 3D printing we could just order replacement body parts from Amazon.

There's an old joke that's in danger of becoming extinct. It goes: "I have a dog with no nose." The other person exclaims, "No nose? How does he smell?" The punchline: "Awful." Soon, no one, not even dogs in bad jokes, will have to go without noses or other parts because stem cell research is growing noses and using nasal cells to help the body heal elsewhere.

In the last year or two, scientists have shown success in multiple ways at regrowing noses. The first news came from England where stem cells were used to regrow a man's nose on his arm. The man was losing his nose to skin cancer. Doctors made a mold of the nose and grew a new one in the mold using stem cells. Three months later the man had a new nose (which, sadly, regulators have not yet allowed him to use).

Shortly after this came news from China where doctors regrew a man's nose on his forehead.

It's a little bizarre, sure. I bet these guys would rather have a nose in the traditional place for no other reason than finding a shirt that's "breathable" must be difficult. On the other hand, having no nose at all is both a cosmetic problem and a health issue. You'd probably be willing to grow a nose anywhere it took to have one again, too.

Recently, the same scientists who grew the arm nose have been able to grow noses, ears, and other small organs in the laboratory. They've implanted windpipes and tear ducts, but they're still waiting for regulatory approval to attach the nose.

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Assuming it all works, it's great news for victims of violence, soldiers, and others who have suffered facial injuries.

The nose is at the center, so to speak, of stem cell research in general. Stem cells from the nose have been used to repair other parts of the body. Nasal stem cells have been used to cure spinal injuries and Parkinson's Disease, for instance.

Why nasal stem cells? They are easier to harvest and less controversial than embryonic stem cells. They are literally the leftovers we throw away after sinus surgery. Adult stem cells like those from the nose (and from fat and blood and other locations) can replicate themselves.

There is a downside, though. Stem cell research, while amazing, still has some unknown long-term effects that require further study. For instance, a woman who was implanted with nasal stem cells eight years ago in an attempt cure her spinal injury not only did not recover from her injuries, but she discovered a mass growing in her back. When doctors removed the mass they found it was a nose. Not a complete nose, but enough of one to produce mucous.

On the bright side, 11 of the doctors' 20 patients showed improved mobility and feeling in their lower extremities after the nasal stem cell therapy.

Unfortunate situations like the nose on the back call into question whether we even need bodies to grow stem cells. Maybe we should choose 3D printing instead. Printed noses -- and other organs such as kidneys and livers -- are quite amazing. These organs also require stem cells but are built as whole units outside of the body, meaning they are less likely to produce unexpected body parts.

3D printing just might make stem cell research more palatable to regulators and those who are uncomfortable with stem cell therapies for religious or philosophical reasons. By combining the two we might reach the point where we can print and grow our own replacement parts just like we machine a new transmission for a model T.

Your next nose might come from a factory, fully grown, in a box shipped to you by Amazon and attached by your local surgeon. You might even grow a whole new face for yourself if you don't want to look like you anymore. And that might just be what you want to do, because if we can machine replacement parts, we're probably going to live a long time. We might want a change of face after a few centuries. You might get tired of looking at yourself in a mirror.

What do you think? Will we see the day of 3D-printed replacement body parts? How does your dog smell? Sound off in the Comments section.

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David has been writing on business and technology for over 10 years and was most recently Managing Editor at Enterpriseefficiency.com. Before that he was an Assistant Editor at MIT Sloan Management Review, where he covered a wide range of business topics including IT, ... View Full Bio
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Gary_EL
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Gary_EL,
User Rank: Ninja
1/3/2015 | 3:35:00 PM
Absolutely Amazing!
I was about to make a joke about cloning my teeth so I don't have to come up with megabucks for dental implants when I read about the potential here for helping people who have been the victims of heretofore hopeless spinal injury. This is really amazingly great news.
PedroGonzales
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PedroGonzales,
User Rank: Ninja
1/3/2015 | 9:44:49 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
I think the biggest area of potential is organ transplant.  If scientist scan figure how to 3D print an organ for a person that their body won't reject, they would have hit the goldmine.  Imagine people who have lost their sight, they could print new cells that could give them their sight back.  The sky is the limit here.
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/4/2015 | 6:38:15 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Gary, 

You can already have 3D printed teeth for implants; they are faster to make and cheaper than traditional ones. I know some dentists are doing this in a dental lab in Germany. 

-Susan 
Gary_EL
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Gary_EL,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 11:51:03 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Interesting. I did some follow-up, but it seems that even after the teeth are printed, there is still the very expensive process of securing them to the jaw. But just imagine - "printing" teeth!
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Author
1/4/2015 | 11:59:53 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Gary, 

The 3D printed tooth goes screwed to a metal screw that goes into the bone; this is done by a micro-surgery. A woman in the Netherlands got a 3D printed new jaw some years ago. It was the first of its kind. 

-Susan
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 5:33:03 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
For the ultimate low cost dental care, I guess, the world has to wait for Nano-bots that live with-in the body 24/7, filling any cavities that develop in the teeth and remove wisdom teeth automatically. But even now, I think it is great that an individual can custom mold a fitting for a chipped tooth.  
Brian.Dean
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Brian.Dean,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 5:58:12 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
Susan, it seems that 3D printers are progressing at a very fast pace. I was of the view that 3D printers had a limited range of material with which they could function and did not know that biocompatible materials existed that could be used in a 3D printer.

Another area of limitations that I had in mind was of the scale of the object, but since 3d printers are printing tooth sized objects then, it means that at the small scale these printers are progressing as well.

Combine stem cell research with 3D printers and maybe, the medical tourism industry will be the first to be hit by this new technology. Interesting times!
danielcawrey
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danielcawrey,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 8:45:53 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
I think there is huge pontential for 3D printing. It may be a ways off, because it seems like the innovation is going to come from larger companies rather than smaller ones because there is a certain degree of consoidation and cost in that arena. 

But the opportunities are going to be really great in the 3D printing space nonetheless. 
Broadway0474
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Broadway0474,
User Rank: Ninja
1/4/2015 | 9:59:45 PM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
As the article intimated, the issue that innovators will bump up against is regulation. How close --- or better yet, how far away --- is any FDA approval of 3D-printed bio-material? And once it's approved, it will need to be heavily regulated, right? Otherwise, you'll have people getting nose transplants from butchers on every street corner.
David Wagner
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David Wagner,
User Rank: Strategist
1/5/2015 | 9:26:41 AM
Re: Absolutely Amazing!
@Susan- From what I hear (though I can't say anything about the German lab specifically) is that 3-D printed teeth are still not as good as other types of implants. That said, I'm sure it won't be long until they are. There's a lot of experimentation that goes into getting the engineering just right. 
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